In alphabetical order by speaker
Adriene Beltz, University of Michigan
The Psychological Correlates of Hormonal Contraceptive Use: General Trends and Individual Differences from Puberty to Menopause
Worldwide, four hundred million women and people with uteri use hormonal contraceptives (HCs), yet surprisingly little is known about the cognitive and mental health correlates of “the pill.” This is a crucial knowledge gap, especially at a moment when reproductive health options are narrowing in the United States and are under scrutiny around the globe. Thus, the goal of this talk is to describe how exogenous ovarian hormone influences on behavior can be studied in HC users, and to provocatively synthesize the extant literature regarding the impact of HCs on spatial cognition, verbal memory, depression, and anxiety. Special consideration will be given to potential lifespan effects, individual differences in effects across women and people with uteri, and research methodology. The talk will end by sharing new advances and future directions for developmental research.
- Beltz, A. M. (2022). Hormonal contraceptive influences on cognition and psychopathology: Past methods, present inferences, and future directions. Frontiers in Neuroendocrinology. Advance online publication. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.yfrne.2022.101037
Steven M. Boker, University of Virginia
Products of Variables in Structural Equation Models
A general method is introduced in which variables that are products of other variables in the context of a structural equation model (SEM) can be decomposed into the sources of variance due to the multiplicands. The result is a new category of SEM which we call a Products of Variables Model (PoV). Some useful and practical features of PoV models include estimation of interactions between latent variables, latent variable moderators, manifest moderators with missing values, and manifest or latent squared terms. Expected means and covariances are analytically derived for a simple product of two variables and it is shown that the method reproduces previously published results for this special case. It is shown algebraically that using centered multiplicands results in an unidentified model, but if the multiplicands have non-zero means, the result is identified. The method has been implemented in OpenMx and Onyx and is applied in five extensive simulations. An exciting new use for PoV is the prospect of estimating parameters in nonlinear dynamical systems.
- Boker, S., von Oertzen, T., Pritikin, J., Hunter, M. D., Brick, T., Brandmaier, A., & Neale, M. (2022). Products of variables in structural equation models. Unpublished manuscript.
- Boker, S., & von Oertzen, T. (2022). Derivation of the expected covariance matrix and means vector of Z = bXY + e using products of variables. Unpublished manuscript.
Martin Brunner, Universität Potsdam
A New Type of Evidence Synthesis: Meta-analyzing Individual Participant Data From Educational Large-scale Assessments
Descriptive analyses of socially important or theoretically interesting phenomena and trends are a vital component of research in the behavioral, social, economic, and health sciences. Such analyses yield reliable results when using representative individual participant data (IPD) from studies with complex survey designs, including educational large-scale assessments (ELSAs) or social, health, and economic survey and panel studies. The meta-analytic integration of these results offers unique and novel research opportunities to provide strong empirical evidence of the consistency and generalizability of important phenomena and trends. Using ELSAs as an example, I illustrate how to use the two-stage approach to IPD meta-analysis to account for the statistical challenges of complex survey designs (e.g., sampling weights, clustered and missing IPD), first, to conduct descriptive analyses (Stage 1), and second, to integrate results with three-level meta-analytic and meta-regression models to take into account dependencies among effect sizes (Stage 2). Because complex social, health, or economic survey and panel studies share many methodological features with ELSAs, the two-stage approach to IPD meta-analyses is also helpful for synthesizing research evidence from these studies.
- Brunner, M., Keller, L., Stallasch, S. E., Kretschmann, J., Hasl, A., Preckel, F., Lüdtke, O., & Hedges, L. V. (2022). Meta-analyzing individual participant data from studies with complex survey designs: a tutorial on using the two-stage approach for data from educational large-scale assessments. Research Synthesis Methods. Advance online publication. https://doi.org/10.1002/jrsm.1584
Kai Schnabel Cortina, University of Michigan
- Pianta, R. C., & Hamre, B. K. (2009). Conceptualization, measurement, and improvement of classroom processes: Standardized observation can leverage capacity. Educational Researcher, 38(2), 109–119. https://doi.org/10.3102/0013189X09332374
- Wang, M.-T., & Degol, J. L. (2016). School climate: A review of the construct, measurement, and impact on student outcomes. Educational Psychology Review, 28(2), 315–352. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10648-015-9319-1
- Driver, C. C. (2022, January 14). Inference with cross-lagged effects: Problems in time and new interpretations. OSF Preprints. https://doi.org/10.31219/osf.io/xdf72
- Driver, C. C. & Tomasik M. J. (2022). Formalizing complex developmental phenomena as continuous-time systems: Learning gains in multiple domains. Unpublished manuscript.
- Freund, A. M., Nikitin, J., & Ritter, J. O. (2009). Psychological consequences of longevity: The increasing importance of self-regulation in old age. Human Development, 52(1), 1–37. https://www.jstor.org/stable/26764887
- Peikert, A., & Brandmaier, A. M. (2021). A reproducible data analysis workflow with R Markdown, Git, Make, and Docker. Quantitative and Computational Methods in Behavioral Sciences, 1, Article e3763. https://doi.org/10.5964/qcmb.3763
- van Lissa, C. J., Brandmaier, A. M., Brinkman, L., Lamprecht, A.-L., Peikert, A., Struiksma, M. E., & Vreede, B. M. I. (2021). WORCS: A workflow for open reproducible code in science. Data Science, 4(1), 29–49. https://doi.org/10.3233/DS-210031
Laurel Raffington, MPI for Human Development
Pushing Biomarkers Beyond Biological Reductionism: A Story of DNA-Methylation Measures of Aging Across the Lifespan
In 1997, Taylor and Repetti posed the question “What is an unhealthy environment and how does it get under the skin?” Since then, a surge of research has associated environmental, health, and behavioral measures with advancingly complex biological markers measured “under the skin”, including brain, blood, protein, microbiome, transcription, and genome-level markers. Critics of this work highlight the risk of biological reductionism and determinism. Proponents argue that a biosocial perspective that situates biological measures in transactional models of human development can help us understand how experience becomes biology, and how biology becomes experience. In this session I would like to think with you about how we may be able to push biomarker research beyond decontextualized and reductionist approaches. I will present recent findings with DNA-methylation measures of biological aging as an example of how biological markers can become tools to advance our understanding of developmental processes across the human lifespan.
- McDade, T. W., & Harris, K. M. (2022). From society to cells and back again: New opportunities for discovery at the biosocial interface. Discover Social Science and Health, 2(1), Article 4. https://doi.org/10.1007/s44155-022-00007-z
- Raffington, L., & Belsky, D. W. (2022). Integrating DNA-methylation measures of biological aging into social determinants of health research. Current Environmental Health Reports, 9, 196–210. https://doi.org/10.1007/s40572-022-00338-8
- Rutledge, J., Oh, H., & Wyss-Coray, T. (2022). Measuring biological age using omics data. Nature Reviews Genetics. Advance online publication. https://www.nature.com/articles/s41576-022-00511-7